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Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury go here increasing worldwide.
The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity gerbalayf und Psoriasis well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI.
Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered.
We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs. Herbals and dietary supplements HDS are used to maintain or improve health. Regulation of herbal products may vary between different countries.
In the European Union, the concepts of traditional herbal medicines and traditional plant food supplements are defined under different legal frameworks [ Behandlung von Psoriasis pustulosa palmoplantar ]. It is the competence and responsibility of national authorities to decide, on a case-by-case basis, whether an herbal product fulfils the definition of medicinal product.
An herb may be considered a medicinal product or a dietary supplement DS depending on medical claims of a therapeutic indication [ 2 ]. In the United States USthe Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act DSHEA of remains the foundation for current regulation of herbal products that are all classified as DS or botanicals [ 3 ]. Therefore, they are regulated as food products and not subjected to the same premarket requirements for safety or efficacy.
Besides, a recent survey made in Europe Finland, Germany, Romania, Italy, Gerbalayf und Psoriasis, and the United Kingdom UK estimated that However, HDS are not as safe as many gerbalayf und Psoriasis believe. These products can induce adverse effects including liver injury. Besides, the number of illicit anabolic androgenic steroids AAS inducing liver gerbalayf und Psoriasis and submitted to the DILI Network DILIN in the Gerbalayf und Psoriasis and to the Spanish DILI Registry has also increased in recent years [ 1011 ].
Unlike what happens with conventional drugs that have the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical ATC classification system, an unresolved problem is the lack of a standard nomenclature or classification scheme for HDS. This author considers DS if consumed as an aid to improve nutritional status, to lose weight or to treat constipation [ 15 ]. The DSHEA defines DS as any product intended to supplement, but not substitute the diet. Dietary supplements may contain one or more ingredients including vitamins, minerals, herbs, botanicals, aminoacids or extracts thereof [ 3 ].
Although herbals and DS sometimes overlap, the substances considered as DS associated with liver injury are Camellia sinensis green tea extractusnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine 1,3-DMAAvitamin A, Herbalife products, Hydroxycut, LipoKinetix, UCP-1, OxyELITE pro, and anabolic androgenic steroids [ 1617 ].
We also include in this list linoleic acid, ma huang and Psoriasis Empfehlungen cambogiaDS gerbalayf und Psoriasis for weight loss. DSILI is challenging due to the fact that these products are not regulated in the same way as prescription drugs are, and subsequently lack uniform criteria for manufacturing and authentication of this products.
Probably, underreporting is even higher with DS than with DILI given that consumers and health care practitioners are not always aware of the possible adverse events of these supplements. Moreover, as occurs with DILI, diagnosis and causality assessment of DSILI is difficult given the absence of diagnostic tests or biomarkers, and causality assessment methods such as the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method Gerbalayf und Psoriasis [ 18 ] are not completely validated for this purpose.
An attempt to develop a specific scale for the causality assessment of HDS-DILI was made by the DILIN group, but it has not been validated gerbalayf und Psoriasis published [ 19 ]. In this manuscript we aimed to make a tabular listing with a detailed description of potentially hepatotoxic DS as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Herbal products have been described elsewhere in other chapters of this special issue.
A selective literature search in the PubMed was performed, using search term such as dietary supplements combined with the following: Besides, an Can Balance Schönheitsspray für Psoriasis habe research was made for each DS related to hepatotoxicity. The search click the following article primarily focused on English and Spanish language case reports, case series, and clinical reviews, published from gerbalayf und Psoriasis November All continue reading in gerbalayf und Psoriasis reports were searched for other yet unidentified case reports, including cases with sufficient information published in other languages.
From overall publications, different DS were identified as being linked to hepatotoxicity, green tea extracts, linoleic acid, usnic acid, vitamin A, garcinia cambogia, ma huang, 1,3-DMAA and multi-ingredient products such as Herbalife products, Hydroxycut, LipoKinetix, Oxy ELITE Pro and UCP-1 and anabolic steroids illicitly sold as DS for bodybuilding. Anabolic androgenic steroids can be gerbalayf und Psoriasis into two groups: Although strictly speaking none of them are DS, we have included illicit AAS in this manuscript because many of them are sold under the description gerbalayf und Psoriasis DS despite being conventional drugs ATC classification system A14A anabolic steroids.
Table 1 summarizes information retrieved from original case reports and cases from DILI registries associated with the aforementioned DS. Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone whose medical indications are mainly male hypogonadism, breast cancer, gerbalayf und Psoriasis and hereditary angioneurotic edema.
However, several AAS such as stanozolol, methyltestosterone, oxandrolone, fluoxymesterone and danazol are also used without medical supervision for performance enhancement and muscle building purposes due to their anabolic effects, stimulating protein synthesis and positive nitrogen balance [ 20 ].
There are numerous reported cases of liver injury due to bodybuilding products, most of them containing illicit anabolic steroids [ 1011212223 ]. Among gerbalayf und Psoriasis most frequent AAS involved in liver injury gerbalayf und Psoriasis stanozolol, methasterone, methylepithiostanol [ 11242526 ].
The number of anabolic androgenic steroids AAS hepatotoxicity cases submitted to the Spanish DILI Registry has increased in recent years. The reason gerbalayf und Psoriasis this increase could be a combination of increased usage and improved clinical awareness of this form of hepatotoxicity.
Several patterns of injury such as focal gerbalayf und Psoriasis hyperplasia, gerbalayf und Psoriasis adenoma [ 27 ], hepatocellular Psoriasis auf Händen Behandlung [ 28 ], peliosis hepatis [ 2930 ], spontaneous hepatic rupture [ 31 ] and, specially, cholestasis hepatitis [ 11242526 gerbalayf und Psoriasis, 3233343536 ], have been described.
However, in a recent study, AAS hepatotoxicity was associated with a distinct phenotype, characterized by considerable total bilirubin TB elevations independent of type of damage, in addition to von celandine Behandlung Psoriasis values of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase, compared to values in liver injury due to convencional drugs and herbs [ 101124252637 ].
Young men mean age 32 yearsrequiring hospitalisation, hepatocellular injury gerbalayf und Psoriasis jaundice were predominating features among the AAS cases in the Spanish and SLatin DILI Registries. Although hepatocellular injury predominates in this study, acute kidney injury developed in cholestatic cases with pronounced jaundice [ 11 ]. A study performed in in Brazil, here that anabolic steroids could induce non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD.
Comparing two groups of bodybuilders, one consuming AAS with another that did not, Inanother Brazilian study with asymptomatic young recreational AAS using bodybuilders was performed. In addition to liver injury, many other effects have been described in AAS users: Green tea is a highly consumed and popular drink in the world used for centuries. Green tea contains methylxanthine alkaloids caffeine, theophylline, theobrominethe polyphenols which are considered the major bioactive molecules of tea.
In the last decade, the consumption of tea has increased for its health benefits. While green tea infusion is widely consumed and generally gerbalayf und Psoriasis although some cases of liver injury after green tea infusion intake have been reported, Table 1green tea Nach Foto Psoriasis Jahrhundert kam have shown to have a hepatotoxic potential. The first report on liver damage related to green tea extract intake was in [ 41 ].
Thereafter, many cases of liver injury related to the intake of different green tea extracts have been recorded [ gerbalayf und Psoriasis15164243444546474849 gerbalayf und Psoriasis, 505152 ]. Published cases of hepatotoxicity due to green tea extracts from the US, Gerbalayf und Psoriasis and Australia until were reviewed by the US Pharmacopeia.
Out of 34 evaluated cases, 27 were labelled as probably and the remaining 7 cases as possibly induced by green tea extracts. One of these patients died, which indicate that this kind of hepatotoxicity can have serious outcomes [ 53 ]. In a gerbalayf und Psoriasis performed by Mazzantion 34 published cases and two unpublished, seven had a positive rechallenge due to green tea extracts [ 54 ]. This highlight the importance of a correct hepatotoxicity diagnosis to avoid inadvertent reexposition to the causative agent.
However, experimental studies have also demonstrated hepatoprotective properties in vitro and in vivo [ 565758 ]. Furtheremore, a recent systematic review presents therapeutic and favorable effects of Camellia sinensis in humans, such as reducing mortality, attenuating steatosis, and a reducing incidence of primary liver cancer [ http://larpring.de/vitamin-d-fuer-psoriasis.php ].
The duration of treatment and time to onset range from 17 to days and 5 to days, learn more here [ 8 ]. Five cases of liver injury due to Exolise had been reported in Spain before this fulminant case [ 5061 ].
In fact, Exolise was withdrawal in Spain in Spanish Drug and Sanitary Gerbalayf und Psoriasis Agency, AEMPS. The patient developed encephalopathy and required liver transplantation [ 62 ]. Despite the difficulty in identifying green tea extracts as the culprit in an episode of liver damage due to comcomitant intake of other products, as well as the assumption of green tea being a safe product, structured causality assessments have suggested causal relationships between intake of green tea extracts and liver damage with cases of positive reexposures as mentioned above [ 5463 ].
Conjugated linoleic acid CLAa polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid is a DS that has been shown to cause reduction in body fat mass. It has also been shown to stimulate immune responses, improve insuline sensitivity, and modify lipid metabolism. Despite the benefits attributed to CLA, three cases of drug-induced Psoriasis Anfangsstadium auf Beinen injury due to CLA have been reported to date, the first one in [ gerbalayf und Psoriasis ].
All patients were women and developed hepatocelular type of liver injury after taking CLA to aid in weight loss and body fat reduction.
The patient developed encephalopathy and required liver transplantation [ 65 ]. Out of the other two patients, one presented jaundice TB Both cases had complete resolution after discontinuation of CLA. Usnic acid is uniquely found in lichens, and is especially abundant in genera of lichens such as AlectoriaCladoniaUsneaLecanoraRamalina and Evernia.
Gerbalayf und Psoriasis lichens and extracts containing usnic acid have been utilized for medicinal, perfumery, cosmetic as well visit web page ecological applications [ 67 ]. The clinical properties reported are gerbalayf und Psoriasis, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, just click for source, antipiretic and weight loss.
The please click for source popular indication is for weight control alone or in combination with other herbal products. Usnic acid functions as an uncoupler of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and is subsequently believed to stimulate fuel oxidation and increase metabolic rates, which could influence weight loss [ 68 ]. However, this mechanism could also induce mitochondrial injury and hepatocyte death, as in vitro studies have shown that uncoupling mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation can generate oxidative stress [ http://larpring.de/hormonmittel-fuer-psoriasis-2.php ].
Several Schmerz Papeln Psoriasis Größe addition of acute liver failure ALF related to a combination of DS gerbalayf und Psoriasis usnic acid alone or in combination with other products have been gerbalayf und Psoriasis, including cases requiring liver gerbalayf und Psoriasis [ 70717273 gerbalayf und Psoriasis, 74 ].
Hepatotoxicity has been described related to the intake of a multiingredient preparation LipoKinetix, a product that contains norephedrine, caffeine, yohimbine, diiodothyronine, and sodium usniate usnic acid [ 707374 ]. Time to onset for click the following article injury usually occurred within the first 3 months of consumption. Pattern of liver test results were compatible with drug-induced acute hepatocellular necrosis.
There was no evidence of allergy, such as rash or eosinophilia. One patient developed ALF. All recovered spontaneously after discontinuing use of Gerbalayf und Psoriasis, and results of liver tests as well as symptoms normalized within 4 months in five patients two patients declined to have further testing. Three of the seven patients, including the one who developed ALF, were taking LipoKinetix alone at the time gerbalayf und Psoriasis presentation.
Of the four patients who were taking multiple supplements, two resumed taking supplements other than LipoKinetix without further incidents. Other causes of liver injury were excluded in gerbalayf und Psoriasis the patients [ 70 ]. In a case series of ALF from an adult tertiary care university hospital and a Veterans Affairs hospital in Oregon describing 20 cases of ALF, 10 were recent or active users of DS or herbs.
In two of these cases, a year-old female who died and a year-old male who recovered, Lipokinetix was identified as the only cause of ALF [ 73 ]. An analysis, performed at four transplant centers, found an elevated number of acute hepatitis or ALF due to herbal products for weight loss.
Out of 12 patients with liver injury attributed to the intake of HDS weight loss products, two cases in two year-old females were due to Lipokinetix [ 74 ]. Hence, the US Food and Drug Administration FDA published a warning about LipoKinetix, and gerbalayf und Psoriasis product was withdrawn from the US market in November Another two cases of severe liver toxicity related to a multi-ingredient health supplement UCP-1 BDC Nutrition, Richmond, KY, USAa combination containing usnic acid, l -carnitine, and calcium pyruvate, were published by Sanchez et al.
They reported acute liver injury in a wife and husband after taking this product for bodybuilding purposes. The wife developed ALF that required liver transplantation [ 72 ]. Finally, another case of hepatotoxicity requiring liver transplantation due to DS Somalyz and Lipolyz, Species Nutrition, Westbury, NY, USA containing usnic acid was reported by Yellapu et al. This case, is described in the Camellia sinensis section as green tea extract is one of the component of Lipolyz and we are unable to determine which component is responsible for liver injury or if there is an interaction between the components that cause hepatotoxicity.
Herbalife is a company that produces different products for weight loss, DS and cosmetics. Products manufactured in the US are exported to more than 50 countries around the world [ 76 ].
Up gerbalayf und Psoriasis date, there are 11 published reports of liver injury with a total of 57 cases after the intake of some of the different this web page offered by Herbalife, 12 cases from Switzerland [ 7879 ], 12 from Israel [ 80 ], 20 from Spain [ 818283 ], 1 from Argentina [ 84 ], 5 from Iceland [ 85 Vivaton Psoriasis, 5 from US [ 10 arthropathic Psoriasis weit und, 86 ] and two from Venezuela [ 87 ].
The more frequent type of liver injury in these cases was hepatocellular, although there were also cases with cholestatic and mixed liver injury. Among the Herbalife products hepatotoxicity cases there were cases of acute liver failure requiring gerbalayf und Psoriasis and cases of chronic liver injury including cirrhosis.
The mechanism gerbalayf und Psoriasis hepatotoxicity is very difficult to identify as most of the patients took several different Herbalife products at the same time. Some patients had elevated titers of autoantibodies and liver biopsies with plasma cell infiltrates, suggesting that autoimmune mechanisms could have played a role in these patients. In two cases of liver injury after intake of Herbalife products, gerbalayf und Psoriasis with Bacillus subtilis were found in the products.
Hence, adulteration of products with bacterial pathogens could explain some cases of liver injury in patients taking Herbalife products [ 79 ]. Other possible causes of liver injury could be contamination with other microorganisms or chemicals during the manufacturing process or the use of unrefined products, such as herb extracts.
Hydroxycut is a DS product for weight loss and muscle building with many changes in its formulation. Some of the ingredients have been Garcinia cambogiaCissus quadrangulariscaffeine, Ma Huang ephedra and green tea. At least, 29 cases of Hydroxicut-induced liver injury have been reported gerbalayf und Psoriasis 10go here86 gerbalayf und Psoriasis, 8889909192gerbalayf und Psoriasis949596979899 ].
In five cases reported of Hydroxycut-induced hepatotoxicity, from gerbalayf und Psoriasis case series of different HDS-induced liver injury cases, the pattern of liver injury is not specified [ 10 ]. Autoimmune markers can gerbalayf und Psoriasis positive for antinuclear antibodies at the time of the acute liver injury in some patients [ 92 ].
In these reports, six patients developed ALF; out of them, three received a liver transplantation. An additional patient underwent exploratory gerbalayf und Psoriasis for liver transplantation, and gerbalayf und Psoriasis found to have intestinal infarction. The liver transplantation was aborted and the patient died [ 7492 ]. The formulation of Hydroxycut has changed in recent years.
The earliest reported cases of acute liver injury related to Hydroxycut were part of a Ointment Elokim Psoriasis series from four transplant centers of patients that had developed severe hepatitis after taking various http://larpring.de/psoriasis-zu-fuss-was-zu-tun.php containing ephedra, also called ma huang, a plant substance whose natural ingredient is ephedrine [ 74 ].
Gerbalayf und Psoriasis the sale of supplements containing ephedra was banned by the FDA. However, new subsequent cases of ma gerbalayf und Psoriasis Hydroxycut-associated hepatotoxicity were reported, all of whom spontaneously recovered.
In Maythe FDA published a warning about Hydroxycut products related to hepatotoxicity, resulting in that these products were withdrawn from the market [ 95 ]. However, after the recall, Hydroxycut was reformulated and gerbalayf und Psoriasis on the market, and FDA confirmed that the only ingredient left from prior formulations was caffeine [ 96 ]. OxyELITE Pro OEP is a DS containing DMAA.
It is used for performance enhancement and muscle building and for weight control as it is believed to accelerate metabolic processes. DMAA is an ingredient in over 20 DS and has been previously implicated in acute myocardial infarction Jack3d [ ]. A case series of OEP-induced liver injury in a military population in Southern California with two cases requiring transplants due to acute liver failure was reported in [ ].
In earlyseveral reformulated DMAA-free versions of OEP, in which 1,3-dimethylamylamine was replaced with aegeline, started to be sold. However, this new ingredient in OEP products was not notified to the FDA. Two patients underwent urgent transplantations, and one died [ ].
Later, a gerbalayf und Psoriasis epidemiological gerbalayf und Psoriasis of the events in Hawaii was carried out. Fourteen patients used only OEP, while 22 subjects used OEP and another DS as well.
Hepatitis A, B and C, alternative diagnosis in hepatic imaging and history of alcoholism were ruled out in all the patients. No more cases of ALF than those previously reported by Roytman were found [ ]. However, a further investigation by Teschke et gerbalayf und Psoriasis. Additional cases of liver injury associated with the consumption of OEP have been reported. One case of liver injury attributed to OEP was presented in a case series of hepatotoxicity due to HDS from the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network [ 10 ].
Another study investigating reports of adverse event submitted to the FDA from February to February in patients who ingested OEP was performed. Out of the cases, 55 developed liver disease viral and autoimmune hepatitis, gallbladder disease and other known causes of liver damage were excluded [ ].
Gerbalayf und Psoriasis A is used to improve immune functions, night blindness, prevent and treat vitamin A deficiency, and also for gerbalayf und Psoriasis conditions including eczema, psoriasis, keratosis follicularis and ichthyosis.
It is a small problem compared to chronic vitamin A toxicity from the ingestion of high amounts of vitamin A for gerbalayf und Psoriasis or years. Long-term use of large amounts of vitamin A might cause side effects including fatigue, irritability, mental changes, anorexia, stomach discomfort, nausea, vomiting, mild fever, excessive sweating, an increase risk of osteoporosis and hip fracture and many other side effects.
Hepatotoxicity due to hypervitaminosis A has been described for years and include alterations in liver profile, cholestasis, non-cirrhotic portal hypertension, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis [,]. Hepatotoxicity at therapeutic nicht-hormonelle Salbe Psoriasis has also been described.
A case of severe hepatotoxicity associated with habitual daily ingestion of 25, IU of vitamin A bought as an over-the-counter DS was reported by Kowalski [ ]. In addition, vitamin A tolerance can be reduced in patients with regular alcohol consumption [ ].
Toxicity of vitamin A is belived to be a dose-dependent effect of retinoids on hepatic stellate cells. Moreover, histology assessment together with clinical data indicated a strong correlation gerbalayf und Psoriasis volumen density of perisinusoidal fibrosis and the daily dose of vitamin A intake [ ].
We found eighteen reports with 58 cases of vitamin A containing DS related hepatotoxicity [,,,,]. A rare case of cholestatic liver injury without fibrosis with pathological features of vitamin A accumulation in the liver biopsy has also been described, gerbalayf und Psoriasis the patient was taking Herbalife products, therefore it cannot be excluded the presence of hepatotoxicity of other components of Herbalife products together with vitamin A intoxication [ ].
Other individual risk factors have been described such as pre-existing liver disease, co-medication with other potentially hepatotoxic drugs, and younger age . Ephedra, also known as ma huang, is a medicinal preparation from the plant Ephedra sinica and is widely used as a weight-loss product by millions of people.
Analysis of safety data from 50 clinical trial revealed that ma huang are associated with many adverse event related Remicade Behandlung von this product psychiatric, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular [ ].
Liver injury associated with ma huang has also been reported. In an analysis at gerbalayf und Psoriasis transplant center, und Differentialdiagnose von Ekzeme Psoriasis patients with gerbalayf und Psoriasis liver injury were associated with the intake of DS for weight loss containing ma huang Xenadrine, Excelerator, MetabolifeThermolite, BetaLin, Thermo diet stack and Hydroxycut [ 74 ].
Hycroxycut-induced liver injury cases has been described above. Time to gerbalayf und Psoriasis was approximately 6 weeks or more. Liver profiles showed high level of transaminases and coagulopathy. The patients presented hepatic encephalopathy from grade 1 to 4 and three patients required liver transplantations, while the remaining 7 click here without residual lesions.
Garcinia cambogia is a plant-based supplement widly promoted for weight loss. It has been implicated in hepatotoxicity in patients taking Hydroxycut, wich contains a variety of ingredients, including Garcinia cambogiaas mentioned above. The use of Garcinia cambogia alone has also been implicated in cases of hepatotoxicity. Another case occurred in a year-old female after taking pure Garcinia cambogia during one week also for weight loss. This patient had very high trasaminases level ALT gerbalayf und Psoriasis xULN and AST 45 xULN and coagulopathy INR 1.
Link several days, the patient recovered and was discharged [ ]. In both cases other ethiologies of liver injury were ruled out.
Dietary supplements are regulated as food and not subjected to the same pre and postmarketing requirements for safety or efficacy as drugs do. However, published reports of DSILI are rising in parallel with the increasing popularity of herbal and DS in western countries. DSILI has been recognized, in some instances with cases of positive reexposure grean tea extracts. However, the causality assessment in hepatotoxicity has limitations as there is gerbalayf und Psoriasis absence of diagnostic biomarkers.
Gerbalayf und Psoriasis, the attribution of causality is gerbalayf und Psoriasis through an exhaustive interview with the patient, asking for the cronology of intake of drugs and HDS, and exclusion of gerbalayf und Psoriasis causes. For DS, reaching a consistent hepatotoxicity diagnosis is even more difficult as visit web page do not generally perceive them as harmful and therefore do not always inform about DS intake when being interviewed for an episode of liver damage.
Furthermore, the use of DS may not always be continue reading. In addition, the ingredients in DS compounds can vary considerably and are not always adequately reflected in the product label.
It is for that, some authors have analyzed some gerbalayf und Psoriasis the published reports and have profoundly criticized these case reports, the method of causality assessment used as well as the need for an update in regulations [ 63,]. Despite the fact that some of the reported DSILI cases could be erroneously diagnosed, the great amount of data in the literature points to an important see more of health related to the consumption of DS.
The different forms of DSILI considered in this review can be differentiated into two groups based on their characteristic phenotypes: AAS and the remaining DSILI cases. While AAS hepatotoxicity typically produce gerbalayf und Psoriasis values of TB with low levels of transaminases, and no cases of ALF described to date [ 101123242526 ], liver injury due to the remaining DS has typically a hepatocellular pattern of liver damage with very high transaminase levels [ 8474964656697] and a high number of cases with ALF [ 53606265 gerbalayf und Psoriasis, 7071727374788092, ].
Hence, DSILI constitutes an important cause of ALF in transplantation centers [ 7374 ]. The clinical presentation, liver profile and outcome http://larpring.de/psoriasis-wie-sie-behandeln.php DSILI excluding AAS coincide with that of herbal hepatotoxicity, while idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity due to conventional medication have a minor percentage of fatal cases and lower levels of transaminases compared to DSILI and lower levels of bilirubin compared to AAS liver injury [ 1011 ].
In summary, given the unproven efficacy and the high number of cases of liver injury due to DS in addition to the severity with risk of acute liver failure and subsequent death or gerbalayf und Psoriasis, stricter regulations for commercialization and sale of these products are required by competent health authorities. A joint effort among clinicians and health authorities in gerbalayf und Psoriasis new hepatotoxicity cases and to educate the general population on the risks of DS consumption is needed.
This study was supported by grants of the Instituto de Salud Carlos Http://larpring.de/psoriasis-krankheit-2.php cofounded by Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional — FEDER contract numbers: National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.
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Journal List Int J Mol Sci v. Int J Mol Sci. Published online Apr 9. Received Feb 22; Accepted Mar This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution CC-BY license http: This article has been cited by other articles gerbalayf und Psoriasis PMC.
Abstract Dietary supplements DS are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. Introduction Herbals and dietary gerbalayf und Psoriasis HDS are used to maintain or improve health.
Reported Cases of Dietary Supplements-Induced Liver Injury: A Tabular Listing From overall publications, different DS were identified as being linked to hepatotoxicity, http://larpring.de/birkenknospen-von-psoriasis.php tea extracts, linoleic acid, usnic acid, vitamin A, garcinia cambogia, ma huang, 1,3-DMAA and multi-ingredient products such as Herbalife products, Hydroxycut, LipoKinetix, Oxy ELITE Pro and UCP-1 and anabolic steroids illicitly sold as DS for bodybuilding.
Illiciti Androgenic Anabolic Steroids for Body Building Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone whose medical indications are mainly male hypogonadism, breast cancer, anemia and hereditary angioneurotic edema. Green Tea Camellia sinensis Extracts Green tea is a highly consumed and popular drink gerbalayf und Psoriasis the world used for centuries.
Linoleic Acid Conjugated linoleic acid CLAa polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid is a DS that has been shown to cause reduction in body fat mass.
Usnic Acid, LipoKinetix and UCP-1 Usnic acid is uniquely found in lichens, and is especially abundant in genera of lichens such as AlectoriaCladoniaUsneaLecanoraRamalina and Evernia. Herbalife Products Herbalife is a company that produces different products for weight loss, DS gerbalayf und Psoriasis cosmetics.
Hydroxycut Hydroxycut is a DS product for weight loss and muscle building with many changes in its formulation. Vitamin A Vitamin A is used to improve immune functions, night blindness, prevent and treat vitamin A deficiency, and also for skin conditions including eczema, psoriasis, keratosis follicularis and ichthyosis.
Ma Huang Extract Ephedra, also known as ma huang, is a medicinal preparation from the plant Ephedra sinica and is widely used as a weight-loss product by millions of people.
Garcinia Cambogia Garcinia vartoti Massage für Psoriasis Kontra Stratum is a plant-based supplement widly promoted for weight loss.
Discussion Dietary supplements are regulated as food and not subjected to the same pre and postmarketing requirements for safety or efficacy as drugs do. Acknowledgments This study was supported by grants of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III cofounded by Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional — FEDER contract numbers: Abbreviations AAS anabolic androgenic steroids AEMPS Spanish Drug and Sanitary Products Agency ALF acute liver failure ALP alkalin phosphatase ALT alanine aminotransferase AST aspartate aminotransferase ATC Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical CLA conjugated linoleic acid DS dietary supplements DILI drug-induced liver injury DILIN drug-induced liver injury network DMAA dimethylamylamine DSHEA Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act DSILI dietary supplements-induced liver injury FDA Food and Drug Administration HDS herbal and dietary supplements HDS-DILI herbal and dietary supplement-induced liver injury INR international normalized ratio NAFLD non-alcoholic fatty liver disease OEP OxyELITE Pro RUCAM Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method TB total bilirubin UK United Kingdom US United States ULN upper limit of normal.
Author Contributions Literature research: Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. The European role on traditional herbal medicinal products and traditional plant food supplements. European Medicines Agency Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products HMPC [ accessed on 13 January ]. Commission on Dietary Supplement Labels Chapter I Dietary Supplement Health And Education Act of Dietary supplement use by US adults: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Dietary supplement use gerbalayf und Psoriasis the United States: Usage of plant food supplements across six European countries: Findings from the PlantLIBRA consumer survey.
An analysis of incidences submitted to the Spanish registry over a year period. An analysis gerbalayf und Psoriasis cases submitted to the Spanish Liver Toxicity Registry. Incidence, presentation, and outcomes in patients with drug-induced liver injury in the general population of Iceland.
Liver injury from herbals and dietary supplements in the U. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network. Distinct phenotype of hepatotoxicity associated with illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids. A prospective gerbalayf und Psoriasis study of drug-induced liver injury in Korea.
Drug-induced liver http://larpring.de/milch-psoriasis.php at an Asian center: Epidemiology of drug-induced liver injury in China: A systematic analysis of the Chinese literature including 21, patients.
Review of liver injury associated with dietary supplements. Hepatotoxicity of herbal and dietary supplements: Hepatotoxicity of herbals and dietary supplements. Drug Induced Liver Disease. Causality assessment of adverse reactions to drugs—I. A novel method based on the started von dem, was juckende Haut am Bauch sein kann Beyersdorf of international consensus meetings: Application to drug-induced liver injuries.
Test-retest reliability of a novel causality assessment tool. The efficacy of ergogenic agents in athletic competition Part I: Hepatic lesions caused by anabolic and contraceptive steroids. Gerbalayf und Psoriasis hepatotoxicity caused by a methasteron-containing performance-enhancing supplement.
Toxic hepatitis in a group of 20 male body-builders taking dietary supplements. Hepatotoxicity associated with dietary supplements containing anabolic steroids. Methasteron-associated cholestatic liver injury: Clinicopathologic findings in 5 cases. Prolonged intrahepatic cholestasis and renal failure secondary to anabolic androgenic steroid-enriched dietary supplements.
Recreational Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use Associated With Liver Injuries among Brazilian Young Men. Hepatic lesions in patients on anabolic androgenic therapy. Spontaneous liver rupture in a patient with peliosis hepatis: Report of nine cases. Near-fatal spontaneous hepatic rupture associated with anabolic androgenic steroid use: Cholestatic Jaundice With the Use of Methylstenbolone and Dymethazine, Designer Steroids Found in Super DMZ Rx 2. High Impact Case Rep. Mastabol induced acute cholestasis: A Case Report of Supplement-Induced Hepatitis in an Active Duty Service Member.
Anabolic-androgenic steroids and liver injury. Cholestatic Jaundice as a Result of Combination Designer Supplement Ingestion. Hepatotoxicity from anabolic androgenic steroids marketed as dietary supplements: A possible new risk factor of toxicant-associated fatty liver disease. Long-term psychiatric and medical consequences of anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse: A looming public health concern? Concentrated green tea extract Bewertungen von bei Psoriasis severe acute hepatitis in a year-old woman—A case report with pharmaceutical analysis.
Acute liver failure induced by green tea gerbalayf und Psoriasis Case report and review of the literature. Acute hepatitis after treatment for hair loss with oral green tea extracts Camellia sinensis Acta Gastroenterol. A potential cause of acute liver failure.
Acute liver injury induced by green tea extracts. Serious adverse liver reactions associated with herbal weight-loss supplements.
Abu el Wafa Y. Acute hepatitis induced by Camellia sinensis green tea An. Hepatotoxicity due to Camelia sinensis. Acute cytolysis induced by Chinese tea. Safety of green tea gerbalayf und Psoriasis. A systematic review by the US pharmacopeia.
Hepatotoxicity from green tea: A review of the literature and two unpublished cases. Cellular and in source hepatotoxicity caused gerbalayf und Psoriasis green tea phenolic acids and catechins. Green tea extract supplement reduces D galactosamine-induced acute liver injury by inhibition of apoptotic and proinflammatory signaling. The antioxidant effect of green tea catechin ameliorates experimental liver injury.
Polyphenols from Camellia sinenesis attenuate experimental cholestasis- induced liver fibrosis in rats. Green tea consumption and liver disease, a systematic review. Fulminant hepatitis during self-medication with hydroalcoholic extract of green tea. Liver toxicity of Camellia sinensis dried etanolic extract.
A case report and literature review. Analysis of cases with initially reported positive re-exposure gerbalayf und Psoriasis. Conjugated linoleic acid-induced toxic hepatitis: Fulminant hepatitis during self-medication with conjugated linoleic acid. Linoleic Acid Induced Acute Hepatitis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Harmful effects of usnic acid on gerbalayf und Psoriasis metabolism. Usnic acid-induced gerbalayf und Psoriasis of cultured mouse hepatocytes: Inhibition of mitochondrial function gerbalayf und Psoriasis oxidative stress.
Severe hepatotoxicity associated with the dietary supplement LipoKinetix. Fulminant liver failure due to usnic acid for weight loss. Severe hepatotoxicity associated with use of a dietary supplement containing usnic acid. High prevalence of potentially hepatotoxic herbal supplement gerbalayf und Psoriasis in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. Severe hepatotoxicity associated with the use of weight loss diet supplements continue reading ma huang or usnic acid.
Herbal does not mean innocuous: Ten cases of severe hepatotoxicity associated with dietary supplements from Herbalife products. Severe hepatotoxicity following ingestion of Herbalife nutritional supplements contaminated with Bacillus subtilis. Association between consumption Salbe golyuka Herbalife nutritional supplements and acute hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity associated with the consumption of herbal slimming products.
Spanish reports of hepatotoxicity associated with Herbalife products. Toxic hepatitis by consumption Herbalife products a case report. Hepatotoxicity associated with the use of Herbalife. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. Case reports of drug-induced liver please click for source in a reference hospital of Zulia state, Venezuela.
Two patients with acute liver injury associated with use of the zu behandeln weight-loss supplement hydroxycut. Acute liver injury associated with the herbal supplement hydroxycut in a soldier deployed to Iraq. A case gerbalayf und Psoriasis and review of liver toxicity from herbal weight loss supplements. Severe hepatotoxicity due to Hydroxycut: Hepatotoxicity due to Hydroxycut: A Case Report and Review of Literature.
How Hydroxycut Stays in Business Despite Deaths, Recalls and a Class-Action Suit. Acute liver injury associated with a newer formulation of the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut. Three cases of acute hepatitis in patients taking hydroxycut bodybuilding supplement. Acute myocardial infarction associated gerbalayf und Psoriasis dietary supplements containing 1,3-dimethylamylamine and Citrus aurantium.
Experience with OxyELITE pro and acute liver injury in active duty service members. Outbreak of severe hepatitis linked to weight-loss supplement OxyELITE Pro. The mystery of the Hawaii liver disease cluster ein Protopic und Psoriasis stellte summer A pragmatic and clinical approach to solve the problem.
The Role of Adverse Event Reporting in the FDA Response to a Multistate Gerbalayf und Psoriasis of Liver Disease Associated with a Dietary Supplement. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. International Continue reading Sciences Institute; Washington, DC, USA: Evaluation of vitamin A toxicity.
The acute and chronic effects of vitamin A. Severe hypervitaminosis A in siblings: Evidence of variable tolerance to retinol intake. Liver damage caused by therapeutic vitamin A administration: Estimate of dose-related toxicity in 41 cases.
Hypervitaminosis A inducing intra-hepatic cholestasis—A rare case report. Vitamin A induced cholestatic gerbalayf und Psoriasis Importance of retinyl ester level determination.
A cautionary note regarding 25, Gerbalayf und Psoriasis supplements. Adverse interactions, including hepatotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Hypervitaminosis Gerbalayf und Psoriasis liver fibrosis: Stellate cell activation and daily dose http://larpring.de/beleuchter-ufo-elektronik-bei-psoriasis.php. Chronic vitamin A intoxication in gerbalayf und Psoriasis. Hepatic, neurologic and dermatologic complications.
Hepatic injury from chronic hypervitaminosis a resulting in portal hypertension and ascites. The histopathologic progression of vitamin A-induced hepatic injury. Will questionable nutrition overwhelm nutrition science? Protracted hypervitaminosis A following long-term, low-level intake. Reversible hepatotoxicity associated with hepatic vitamin A accumulation in a protein-deficient patient.
Hypervitaminosis A unmasked by acute viral hepatitis. Scintigraphic dissociation of reticuloendothelial and hepatocyte function in chronic vitamin A hepatotoxicity. Hepatic and dermatologic manifestations of chronic hypervitaminosis A in adults.
Report of two cases. Vitamin A hepatotoxicity in multiple family members. Development of cirrhosis despite cessation of vitamin A. A six-year clinical and histopathologic follow-up. Relationship of vitamin A and vitamin E intake to fasting plasma retinol, retinol-binding protein, retinyl esters, carotene, alpha-tocopherol, and cholesterol among elderly people and young adults: Increased plasma retinyl esters among vitamin A-supplement users.
The need for regulation of dietary supplements—Lessons from ephedra. Acute liver failure associated with Garcinia cambogia use. Acute hepatitis induced by pure Garcinia cambogia.
Challenges and pitfalls of causality assessment methods. Hepatotoxicity Induced by Herbal and Dietary Gerbalayf und Psoriasis. Acute hepatitis due to Exolise, a Camellia sinensis-derived drug.
Probable hepatoxicity from epigallocatecol gallate used for phytotherapy. Hepatic toxicity probably due to X-elles used in phytotherapy. Hepatotoxicity associated with supplements containing Chinese green tea Camellia sinensis Ann. Hepatotoxicity due to extracts of Chinese green tea Camellia sinensis: Acute hepatitis associated with the use of green tea infusions. Toxic hepatitis triggered by green tea.
Acute hepatitis after green tea ingestion. A case of hepatotoxicity caused gerbalayf und Psoriasis green tea. Prieto de Paula J. Toxic hepatitis due to Camellia sinensis. Hepatitis caused by Lotus-f3? Fulminant hepatic failure after use of the herbal weight-loss Psoriasis und das Kosten exilis. Hepatitis associated with aqueous green tea infusions: Euforia-induced acute hepatitis in a patient with scleroderma.
Is green tea a potential trigger for autoimmune hepatitis? Acute hepatitis caused by green tea infusion: Three cases of liver toxicity with a dietary supplement intended to stop hair loss.
Jaundice as a misadventure of a green tea Camellia sinensis lover: Acute hepatitis and personality change in a year-old man taking prohormone supplement SUS Bile acid nephropathy in a bodybuilder abusing an anabolic androgenic steroid.
Articles from International Journal of Molecular Sciences are provided here courtesy of Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute MDPI. Article PubReader ePub beta PDF K Citation.
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