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Radix Glycyrrhizae consists of the Psoriasis Monographie roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. However, literature references to botanical, chemical, and biological studies on this species are rare. Therefore, it has not been included in this Psoriasis Monographie. A perennial plant, Psoriasis Monographie to more than 1m in height, link, with highly developed stoloniferous roots.
Leaves compound, 9—17 alternate imparipinnate leaflets, oblong to elliptical-lanceolate, acute or obtuse; racemes loose, shorter than the leaves or a little Psoriasis Monographie. Flowers 1 cm long. Flat pods Psoriasis Monographie to linear, 1—3cm long by 6 mm wide, more or less densely echinate glandular, many-seeded or abbreviated, 2- or 3-seeded 1 Psoriasis Monographie, A perennial glandular herb, Psoriasis Monographie high.
Stem erect, with short whitish hairs and echinate glandular hairs; the lower part of the stem is woody. Leaves alternate, imparipinnate; leaflets 7—17, ovate-elliptical, 2—5. Inflorescence an axillary cluster. Flowers purplish, papilionaceous; calyx Psoriasis Monographie. Fruit a flat pod, oblong, sometimes falcate, 6—9mm wide, densely covered with brownish echinate glandular für Psoriasis. The root is cylindrical, fibrous, flexible, 20—22cm long and 15mm in diameter, with click here without cork, cork reddish, furrowed, light yellow inside The commercial variety, G.
The peeled root is yellow, Psoriasis Monographie, fibrous, finely striated; fracture, fibrous in the bark and splintery in the wood; internally, bright yellow. A distinct Psoriasis Monographie ring http://larpring.de/bad-mit-jod-bei-psoriasis.php the yellowish grey bark from the finely radiate yellow wood; central pith, only in rhizomes 127.
The enlarged crown of click root may attain up Psoriasis Monographie 10 cm in diameter; externally, the unpeeled root purplish brown, somewhat scaly, with stem scars Psoriasis Monographie the top; the peeled root yellowish, coarsely striated; fracture as for Spanish type; internally, yellow, radiating 1. The roots and rhizomes are cylindrical, fibrous, flexible, 20—cm long, 0.
Externally reddish brown or greyish brown, longitudinally wrinkled, furrowed, lenticellate, and with sparse rootlet scars. Psoriasis Monographie compact, fracture slightly fibrous, yellowish here, starchy; cambium ring distinct, rays radiate, some with clefts.
Rhizomes cylindrical, externally with bud scars, pith present in the centre of fracture Psoriasis Monographie Therapeutische Shampoos mit Psoriasis, 716 Odour slight and characteristic 167 ; taste, very sweet 1671315Psoriasis Monographie In transverse section the cork is thick, brown or purplish brown, formed of several layers of wie Psoriasis Medikamente polygonal thin-walled cells; cortex of phelloderm in root Psoriasis Monographie narrow, yellow fibres of Psoriasis Monographie cells contain isolated Psoriasis Monographie of http://larpring.de/salicylsaeure-salbe-fuer-psoriasis-2-bewertungen.php oxalate; phloem, wide, yellow, traversed by numerous wavy parenchymatous medullary rays, 1—8 cells wide and consisting of numerous radial groups Psoriasis Monographie fibres, each surrounded by a crystal sheath of parenchyma cells.
Other parenchyma cells contain small round or oval starch granules. Pith, only in rhizome, dark yellow, parenchymatous. Root, with 4-arch primary xylem, no pith and shows 4 broad primary medullary rays, radiating from the centre at right angles to one another. In peeled Psoriasis Monographie, the cork, cortex, and sometimes part of the phloem are absent Psoriasis Monographie. Light yellow in the peeled or brownish yellow or purplish brown Psoriasis Monographie the unpeeled root.
Native to central and south-western Asia and the Mediterranean region 1112 It is cultivated in the Mediterranean basin read more Africa, in southern Europe, and in India 11112 Macroscopic, microscopic, and microchemical examinations 1—7 ; and thinlayer chromatographic analysis for the presence of glycyrrhizin 2—7. The test for Salmonella spp.
The maximum acceptable limits of other microorganisms are as follows 1819 For preparation of decoction: Preparations for internal use: To be established in accordance with national requirements. Normally, the maximum residue limit of aldrin and dieldrin for Radix Glycyrrhizae Psoriasis Monographie not Psoriasis Monographie than 0. For other pesticides, see WHO guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal plants 18 Psoriasis Monographie for predicting Psoriasis Monographie intake of pesticide residues Recommended lead and cadmium levels are no more than 10 and 0.
For analysis of strontium, iodine, caesium, caesium, and plutonium, see WHO guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal plants Alcohol-soluble extractive, Psoriasis Monographie, and foreign organic matter tests to be established in accordance with national requirements.
The major constituents are triterpene saponins. Glycyrrhizin occurs as a mixture of potassium and calcium salts 9. It is a monodesmoside, which on hydrolysis releases two molecules of D-glucuronic acid and the aglycone glycyrrhetic glycyrrhetinic acid enoxolone Glycyrrhizin is generally regarded as the active principle of Radix Glycyrrhizae and is responsible for its sweetness, which is 50 times that of sucrose Flavonoid constituents include read article and isoliquiritigenin.
Crude Psoriasis Monographie material, dried extract and liquid extract. Store in a well-closed container, protected from light and moisture 13. As a demulcent in the treatment of Psoriasis Monographie throats, and as an expectorant in the treatment of coughs and bronchial catarrh. Also in the prophylaxis and treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers, Psoriasis Monographie dyspepsia 16827— As an anti-inflammatory agent in the Psoriasis Monographie of allergic reactions 27rheumatism and arthritis 9to prevent liver toxicity, and to treat tuberculosis and adrenocorticoid insufficiency 9 As a laxative, emmenagogue, contraceptive, galactagogue, antiasthmatic drug, and antiviral agent In the treatment of dental caries, kidney stones, heart disease Psoriasis Monographie"consumption", epilepsy, loss of appetite, appendicitis, dizziness, tetanus, diphtheria, snake bite, and haemorrhoids 11 The demulcent action of the drug is due primarily to glycyrrhizin The antitussive and expectorant properties of the drug have also been attributed to glycyrrhizin, which accelerates tracheal mucus secretion Psoriasis Traditionelle von Behandlung Methoden der Bewertungen The antiulcer activity of Radix Psoriasis Monographie has been demonstrated both experimentally and clinically.
Intraperitoneal, intraduodenal, or oral administration of aqueous or alcoholic extracts of Radix Glycyrrhizae reduced gastric secretions in rats, and it inhibited the formation of gastric ulcers induced by pyloric ligation, aspirin, Psoriasis Monographie ibuprofen 2731— Glycyrrhizin and its agly- cone glycyrrhetic acid, enoxolonetwo of the active constituents of Radix Glycyrrhizae, both have antiphlogistic activity and increase the Psoriasis Monographie of mucus secretion by the gastric mucosa 9.
The mechanism of antiulcer activity involves acceleration of mucin excretion through increasing the synthesis of glycoprotein at the gastric mucosa, prolonging the life of the epithelial cells, and antipepsin activity The spasmolytic Psoriasis Monographie of Radix Glycyrrhizae has been demonstrated in vivo guinea-pig, rabbit, and dog 35—37and appears to be due to the flavonoids liquiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin Glycyrrhizin reduces the toxic action of carbon tetrachloride- and galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity Psoriasis Monographie cultured rat hepatocytes, through its antioxidant activity 9 Glycyrrhizin inhibited histamine release from Psoriasis Monographie mast cells and prevented carbon tetrachloride-induced liver lesions and macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity Intragastric administration of a Psoriasis Monographie fraction isolated from Radix Psoriasis Monographie to mice protected against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity Glycyrrhizin protected the liver apparently through its membrane stabilization effects The Psoriasis Monographie and antiallergic actions of the drug have been attributed to the corticosteroid-like activity Psoriasis Monographie glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetic acid enoxolone.
These compounds act indirectly by potentiating the activity of corticosteroids. Glycyrrhizin given intraperitoneally suppressed contact dermatitis in mice, and was more effective than prednisolone, but no effects were observed after oral administration 9. In vitrothe drug inhibits the growth of Bacillus subtilis 40Mycobacterium tuberculosis 41Aspergillus spp.
Carbenoxolone, a derivative of glycyrrhetic Psoriasis Monographie, has been used clinically for years in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers Oral administration of deglycyrrhizinated liquorice mg, 3 times daily to patients with chronic duodenal ulcers was as effective as antacid or cimetidine treatments These results indicate that, in addition to glycyrrhetic acid, other unidentified constituents of Radix Glycyrrhizae contribute to its antiulcer Psoriasis Monographie. Reports on the usefulness of liquorice extracts on body fluid homeostasis in patients with Addison Psoriasis Monographie are contradictory.
One study found no positive effects 48while three other studies noted an increase in weight gain and sodium retention 49— Radix Glycyrrhizae is contraindicated in patients with hypertension, cholestatic disorders or cirrhosis of the liver, hypokalaemia, or chronic renal insufficiency, and during pregnancy 9 See more excretion is reduced and potassium excretion is Psoriasis Monographie. Blood pressure may rise.
Radix Glycyrrhizae should not be taken concurrently with corticosteroid treatment. If sore throat or cough persists for more than 3 days, the patient should consult a physician.
Because it Psoriasis Monographie potassium loss, Radix Glycyrrhizae should not be administered for prolonged use with thiazide and loop diuretics or cardiac glycosides Because it reduces sodium and water excretion, the effectiveness of drugs used in the treatment of hypertension may be reduced. Radix Glycyrrhizae should not be administered in conjunction with spironolactone or amiloride The safety of Radix Glycyrrhizae preparations during pregnancy has not been established. As a precautionary measure the drug should not be used during pregnancy.
The safety of Radix Glycyrrhizae preparations during lactation has not been established. As a precautionary measure the drug should not be used during lactation Psoriasis Monographie on medical advice. No adverse reactions have been associated with the drug when used within the recommended dosage and treatment period. In rare cases, myoglobinuria and myopathy can occur Unless otherwise prescribed, average Psoriasis Monographie dose of crude plant material, 5—15g, corresponding to —mg of glycyrrhizin.
Doses of other preparations should be calculated accordingly Radix Glycyrrhizae should not be used for longer than Psoriasis Monographie weeks without medical advice. African pharmacopoeiaVol. Guangzhou, Guangdong Science and Technology Press, British herbal compendiumVol. Bournemouth, British Herbal Medicine Association, Handbook of Ayurvedic medicinal plants.
Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, The Indian pharmaceutical codex. Handbook of Arabian medicinal plants. Chin WY, Keng H. An illustrated dictionary of Chinese medicinal herbs. Singapore, CRCS Publications, Oriental materia medica, a concise guide. Long Beach, CA, Oriental Healing Arts Institute, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, August 21, production an on-line database available directly through the University of Illinois at Chicago or through the Scientific and Technical Network STN of Chemical Abstracts Services.
Medicinal plants in China. Manila, World Health Organization, WHO Regional Publications, Western Pacific Series, No. Chinese herbs, their botany, chemistry and pharmacodynamics.
Rutland, VT, CE Tuttle, Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. Geneva, World Health Organization, Stuttgart, Deutscher Apotheker Verlag, Guidelines for predicting dietary intake of pesticide residues2nd rev. Takino Y et al. Quantitative determination of glycyrrhizic acid Psoriasis Monographie liquorice roots by TLC-densitometry studies on the evaluation of crude drugs. Planta medicaPsoriasis Monographie, Quantitative determination of biologically active constituents in medicinal plant crude extracts by thin-layer chromatography densitometry.
Journal of chromatography, Sticher O, Soldati F. Pharmaceutica acta Helvetica, Determination Psoriasis Monographie glycyrrhizin in pharmaceutical preparations by ionpair high-performance Psoriasis Monographie chromatography. Shoyakugaku zasshi, Okada K et al.
High-speed liquid chromatographic analysis of constituents in licorice root. Yakugaku zasshi, Recent research on Oriental medicinal plants. Wagner H, Hikino H, Farnsworth NR, eds. Economic and medicinal plant research. London, Academic Press, Pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, medicinal plants. Licorice ingestion and blood pressure regulating hormones. Steroids, Dehpour AR et al.
The protective effect of liquorice components and their derivatives against gastric ulcer induced by aspirin in rats. Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology, Antiulcer activities Psoriasis Monographie liquorice and its derivatives Psoriasis Monographie experimental gastric lesion induced by ibuprofen in rats.
International journal of pharmaceutics, Morgan RJ et al. The protective effect of deglycyrrhinized liquorice against Psoriasis Foto and aspirin plus bile acid-induced gastric mucosal Psoriasis Monographie, and its influence on aspirin absorption in rats.
Russell Es ist unmöglich, der Psoriasis haben, Morgan RJ, Nelson LM. Psoriasis Monographie on the protective effect of deglycyrrhinized Psoriasis Monographie against aspirin Heilung für allergische Hautjucken Psoriasis Monographie ASA plus bile acid-induced gastric mucosal damage, and ASA absorption in rats.
Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology, 19 Suppl. Takagi K, Harada M. Pharmacological studies on herb Peony root. Effects of peoniflorin on circulatory and respiration system and isolated organs. Determination of the activity of spasmolytic drugs with reference to the papaverine standard.
Biuletyn Psoriasis Monographie Roslin Leczniczych, 6: Shihata M, Elghamry MI. Experimental studies in the effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra. Licorice, more than just a flavour. Canadian pharmaceutical journal, Wang GS, Psoriasis Monographie ZW.
The protective action of Glycyrrhiza flavonoids against tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in mice. Yao hsueh hsueh pao, Sabahi T et al. Screening of plants from the southeast of Iran for antimicrobial activity. International journal of crude drug research, Grange JM, Davey RW. Medizinische Nagellacke bei Psoriasis Monographie antituberculous activity in Psoriasis Monographie extracts. Journal of applied bacteriology, Toanun C, Sommart T, Rakvidhyasastra V.
Effect of some medicinal plants and spices on growth of Aspergillus. Proceedings of the 11th Conference of Science and Technology. Bangkok, Kasetsart University, Mitscher LA et al. Antimicrobial agents from higher plants.
Antimicrobial isoflavonoids and related substances from Glycyrrhiza glabra Psoriasis Monographie. Journal of natural Psoriasis Monographie, Some clinical and experimental studies on whole root of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
Yashtimadhu in peptic ulcer. Indian medical gazette, Baker ME, Fanestil DD. Liquorice as a regulator of steroid and prostaglandin metabolism. Lancet, Rask-Madsen J et al. Effect Psoriasis Monographie carbenoxolone on gastric prostaglandin E2 levels in patients with peptic ulcer disease following vagal and pentagastrin stimulation. European journal of clinical investigation, Endoscopic controlled trial of four drug regimens in the treatment of chronic duodenal ulceration.
Irish medical journal, Molhuysen JA et al. A liquorice extract with deoxycortone-like action. LancetPsoriasis Monographie, ii: Groen J et al. New England journal of medicine, Psoriasis Monographie WI et al.
Effects of liquorice and its derivatives on salt and water metabolism. Lancet, i: Journal of clinical investigation, Treatment of gastric ulcer with carbenoxolone: Gut, 9: Sakai Y et al.
Effects of medicinal plant extracts from Chinese herbal Psoriasis Monographie on the mutagenic activity of benzo[a]pyrene. Mutation research, Lee HK et al. Effect of bacterial growth-inhibiting ingredients on the Die gewonnen Psoriasis, Psoriasis Monographie of medicinal herbs. Yamamoto H, Mizutani T, Nomura H. Studies on the mutagenicity of crude drug extracts. Leslie GB, Salmon G.
Repeated dose toxicity studies and Psoriasis Monographie studies on nine Bio-Strath herbal remedies. Swiss medicine, 1: Epistein MT et al. Effects of eating liquorice on the renin-angiotensin aldosterone Psoriasis Monographie in normal subjects. British medical journal, 1: Stewart PM et al. Mineralocorticoid activity of liquorice: Caradonna P et al. Acute myopathy associated with chronic licorice ingestion: Reversible loss of click at this page deaminase activity.
Ultrastructural pathology, Essential Medicines and Health Psoriasis Monographie Information Portal A World Health Organization resource. Article source Search in the Essential Medicines and Health Products Information Portal Advanced link. Navigation Essential Medicines and Health Products Information Portal home WHO Home WHO Health Systems and Services WHO Medicines Psoriasis Monographie sites.
WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants - Volume Psoriasis Monographie WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants - Volume 1 ; pages Related documents. WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants - Volume 2.
WHO Monographs on Psoriasis Monographie Medicinal Plants - Volume 3. WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants - Psoriasis Monographie 4. WHO PUVA-Behandlung Psoriasis on Medicinal Plants Commonly Used in the Newly Independent States NIS. Radix Glycyrrhizae Definition Radix Glycyrrhizae consists of the dried roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra Psoriasis Monographie. Synonyms Liquiritae officinalis Moench is a synonym of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
Selected vernacular names Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Description Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Plant material of interest: Organoleptic properties Odour Psoriasis Monographie and characteristic 167 ; taste, very sweet 1671315 Microscopic characteristics In transverse section the cork is thick, brown or purplish brown, formed of several layers of flattened polygonal thin-walled cells; cortex of phelloderm in root somewhat narrow, yellow fibres of parenchyma cells contain isolated prisms of calcium oxalate; phloem, wide, yellow, traversed by numerous Psoriasis Monographie parenchymatous medullary rays, 1—8 cells wide and consisting of numerous radial groups of fibres, each surrounded by a crystal sheath of parenchyma cells.
Powdered plant material Light yellow in the peeled or brownish yellow or purplish brown in the unpeeled root. Geographical distribution Glycyrrhiza glabra Native to central and south-western Asia and the Mediterranean region 1112 Glycyrrhiza uralensis Northern China, Mongolia, and Siberia 16 General identity tests Macroscopic, microscopic, and microchemical examinations 1—7 ; and thinlayer chromatographic analysis for the presence of glycyrrhizin 2—7.
Purity tests Microbiology The test for Salmonella spp. Pesticide residues To be established in accordance with national requirements. Heavy metals Recommended lead and cadmium levels are no more than 10 and 0. Radioactive residues For analysis of strontium, iodine, caesium, caesium, and plutonium, see WHO guidelines on quality control Psoriasis Monographie for medicinal plants Other purity tests Alcohol-soluble extractive, chemical, and foreign organic Psoriasis Monographie tests to be established in accordance with national requirements.
Major Psoriasis Monographie constituents The major constituents are triterpene saponins. Dosage Psoriasis Monographie Crude plant material, dried extract Psoriasis Monographie liquid extract.
Medicinal uses Uses supported by clinical data None. Uses described in pharmacopoeias and in traditional systems of medicine As a demulcent in the treatment of sore throats, and as an expectorant in the treatment of coughs and bronchial catarrh. Uses described in folk medicine, not supported by experimental or clinical data As a laxative, emmenagogue, contraceptive, galactagogue, antiasthmatic drug, and antiviral Psoriasis Monographie Pharmacology Experimental pharmacology The demulcent Psoriasis Monographie of the drug is due Psoriasis Monographie to glycyrrhizin Contraindications Radix Glycyrrhizae is contraindicated in patients with hypertension, cholestatic disorders or cirrhosis of the liver, hypokalaemia, or chronic renal insufficiency, and during pregnancy 9 Precautions General Radix Glycyrrhizae should not be taken concurrently with corticosteroid treatment.
Drug interactions Because it increases potassium loss, Radix Glycyrrhizae should not be administered for prolonged use with thiazide and loop diuretics or cardiac glycosides Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility Radix Psoriasis Monographie is not mutagenic in vitro 53— Nursing mothers The safety of Radix Glycyrrhizae preparations during lactation has not been established. Paediatric use The safety and effectiveness of the drug in children have not been established.
Other more info No information available about drug and laboratory test interactions. Adverse reactions No adverse reactions Psoriasis Monographie been associated with the drug when used within the recommended dosage and treatment period.
Posology Unless otherwise prescribed, average daily dose of crude Psoriasis Monographie material, 5—15g, corresponding to —mg of glycyrrhizin.
European pharmacopoeia2nd ed. Strasbourg, Council of Psoriasis Monographie, The pharmacopoeia of Japan XII. Tokyo, The Society of Japanese Pharmacopoeia, Farmakope Indonesia4th ed. Jakarta, Departemen Kesehatan, Republik Indonesia, European pharmacopoeia3rd ed.
German Commission E Monograph, Liquiritiae radix. Bundesanzeiger, Help and Services Contacts FAQs Employment Feedback Privacy E-mail scams. INT WHO Home WHO Health Systems and Services WHO Medicines WHO sites. Connect with WHO RSS Feeds WHO YouTube channel Follow WHO on Twitter WHO Facebook page. The WHO Essential Medicines and Health Products Information Portal was designed and is maintained by Human Info NGO.
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