Psoriasis: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
Find synonyms Find exact match. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disorder that causes areas of thickened, inflamed, red skin, often covered with silvery scales. Children and adolescents can develop psoriasis, but it occurs primarily in adults. Women and men are equally affected. Psoriasis is not an infection, and it is not contagious.
Psoriasis is not curable, although many treatments are available to reduce the symptoms and appearance of the disease. Researchers have not identified the exact cause of psoriasis. However, they believe that the disease develops due to a combination of immune, genetic, and environmental factors. Understanding the normal process of skin development is helpful for Psoriasis Syndrome why learn more here changes occur in people with psoriasis.
The skin is made up of several layers figure 1. Psoriasis Syndrome top layer is the Psoriasis Syndrome, a layer of cells that Psoriasis Syndrome and eventually die, covering the surface of the skin with a layer of Psoriasis Syndrome cells called the stratum corneum.
The middle layer is the dermis; this is the layer where collagen and blood vessels are found. The inner layer is the subcutaneous layer, a layer of fat underneath the skin. Every day, as cells in the epidermis die Psoriasis Syndrome become part of Psoriasis Syndrome stratum corneum, dead cells Psoriasis Syndrome the Psoriasis Syndrome of the stratum corneum also are shed.
This balance prevents the dead skin layer from becoming too thick. In skin affected by psoriasis, immune Psoriasis Syndrome enter the skin through blood vessels and cause the epidermis to grow very rapidly and to stop shedding properly figure 2.
This causes thickening of the skin as well as the scaly build-up composed of dead skin cells that is seen on areas affected by psoriasis. Dilated blood vessels in Psoriasis Syndrome dermis that feed the rapidly growing epidermis cause the red color of the skin. About 40 percent of people Psoriasis Syndrome psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis a type of arthritis closely related to psoriasis have family members with the disorder see "Patient education: Psoriatic arthritis Beyond the Basics ".
Several genes have been identified that make people more susceptible to psoriasis, but there is no genetic test that can definitely tell whether an individual will develop Psoriasis Syndrome disease. Physical stress, psychological stress, or infections caused by bacteria or viruses can cause flares worsening of psoriasis symptoms. Certain medications also can worsen psoriasis symptoms, including beta blockers eg, propranolollithium, and antimalarial Psoriasis Syndrome eg, hydroxychloroquine, Plaquenil.
Smoking appears to increase the risk and severity of psoriasis, particularly for psoriasis of the palms and soles. Plaque psoriasis Psoriasis Syndrome to affect young and middle aged adults, but can occur at any age. The individual skin plaques are Psoriasis Syndrome between 0. Psoriasis Syndrome of the most common areas for plaques are the scalp, elbows, knees, and back picture 1.
The severity of plaque psoriasis varies widely. Plaque psoriasis may occur in just a few small areas or may cover a large portion of the body. It often affects children or young adults with no past history of psoriasis, and causes a sudden eruption of small scaly papules on the trunk of the body picture 2. It develops quickly, with multiple small pustules that may join into larger areas picture 3. Symptoms can include fever and abnormal blood levels of white blood cells and calcium.
Pustular psoriasis can also cause pus-filled blisters on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. These blisters can crack, Psoriasis Syndrome painful breaks Psoriasis Syndrome the skin, and can be disabling.
Sometimes this source mistakenly diagnosed as a fungal or Psoriasis Syndrome infection. The pits look as if someone Psoriasis Syndrome taken a pin and pricked the nail several times picture 5. In addition, nails article source develop a tan-brown color also known as "oil spots" or may separate from the Psoriasis Syndrome bed Psoriasis Syndrome known as "onycholysis" picture 6.
In more severe cases, people have thick, crumbling nails. Psoriasis Syndrome of nail psoriasis is difficult and may include injections of steroids into the nail bed or oral medications such as methotrexate, cyclosporine, or immunomodulatory drugs. Skin signs usually develop first, although about 15 percent of patients develop arthritis joint swelling and stiffness before symptoms of psoriasis.
People with psoriatic arthritis often have severe nail problems. Psoriasis also has been associated with obesity and an increased risk of heart disease. Psoriasis is usually a lifelong condition and is not currently curable, although the severity of the disease can improve or worsen over time and can be controlled with treatment. In people with certain forms of the disease, itching or pain and stiffness is severe and disabling.
Some people with visible psoriasis lesions have feelings of embarrassment about their appearance. Stress, anxiety, loneliness, and low self-esteem can occur as a result.
People with psoriasis have higher Psoriasis arava of depression compared with those without the condition. Check this out who have depression often benefit Psoriasis Syndrome working with a psychologist, clinical social worker, or other therapist to discuss their illness and identify possible ways to cope. A number of organizations, such as the National Psoriasis Foundation www.
Psoriasis can be diagnosed by examining the skin. Occasionally, a skin biopsy or scraping may be taken to rule out Psoriasis Syndrome disorders. There is no blood test that can definitively diagnose psoriasis.
Psoriasis is not curable but article source treatments are available that can reduce the bothersome symptoms and appearance of the disease. A combination of therapies is often recommended. Referral to a dermatologist a doctor who specializes in skin conditions may be needed if the diagnosis of psoriasis is uncertain, if the initial treatment does not improve symptoms, or Psoriasis Syndrome the disease is widespread or severe.
People with psoriatic arthritis may need to see a rheumatologist a doctor who specializes in joint conditions. Because psoriasis cannot be cured, continued use of medication is required to maintain improvement. For the best results, patients must use treatments as directed. Over-the-counter moisturizers such as petroleum jelly or thick creams may be recommended; these should be applied immediately after bathing or showering. This is often done twice per day at the beginning of treatment.
More potent formulations require a Psoriasis Syndrome. Other forms, Psoriasis Syndrome as solutions, gels, shampoo, lotion, foam, and spray, are available.
Some people with psoriasis prefer these forms of medication over creams or ointments. Side effects can include thinning of the skin and stretch marks particularly when applied to normal skin. These effects are most likely to occur when topical corticosteroids are used for long periods of time.
It is important to use these medications properly to reduce the risk for these side effects. A patient who notices these effects should contact his or her doctor. Dovonex, Sorilux and calcitriol sample brand name: Vectical are related to vitamin D and work by slowing the growth of skin cells in the epidermis. These medicines can be used instead of or in addition to topical corticosteroids. They are usually applied twice a day when used alone. The side effects are usually minimal, with skin irritation being the most common problem.
These drugs do not cause thinning of the skin. Another preparation, Taclonex, combines calcipotriene with a corticosteroid betamethasone in a once daily treatment. Although Taclonex is effective, it is quite expensive. It is not completely clear Psoriasis Syndrome tar works, although it appears to reduce the overproduction of skin cells that leads to psoriasis.
Tar preparations are available in shampoos, creams, oils, and lotions without a Psoriasis Syndrome, and are usually applied to the skin or scalp once or twice a day. Tar products do not cause serious side effects, although they can stain skin, hair, and clothing. Tar products are often used along with corticosteroids or with ultraviolet light treatments.
Tazorac is a skin treatment derived from vitamin A that is available in a cream or gel. It is usually applied once per day, in the evening. It may also be applied for 20 minutes and then washed off if skin irritation develops. Improvement should be seen within Psoriasis Syndrome months of treatment. Protopic and pimecrolimus Elidel creams, can be used to treat psoriasis, especially on the face and skin folds, such as in the armpits or under the breasts.
It is now used less commonly than many other medications because the treatment can cause temporary red-brown stains on skin and permanent stains on clothing. Because anthralin can be irritating, it is usually applied to the skin for only 10 to 60 minutes per day. Anthralin may be less effective than topical corticosteroid, topical calcipotriene, and topical calcitriol therapy. During the summer months, people with psoriasis often notice that their symptoms improve.
Ultraviolet light treatment from a dermatologist may be recommended Psoriasis Syndrome treat psoriasis. However, it is important to discuss the potential risks Psoriasis Syndrome benefits of ultraviolet light therapy before beginning treatment. Before receiving ultraviolet light therapy, you may be asked to bathe and gently scrub areas affected by psoriasis, and then apply mineral oil to these areas; the oil allows the light to penetrate the skin Psoriasis Syndrome easily.
Although ultraviolet light therapy is effective for treating psoriasis, office treatment can be inconvenient and expensive, despite insurance coverage. Some dermatologists may recommend brief sun exposure or home light treatment or use of a tanning bed if other options are not feasible as alternatives to office treatment. Sometimes, an oral medication may be prescribed to sensitize the skin to the light treatment; when this is done, care must be taken to prevent severe burns from occurring.
Ultraviolet light therapy is not recommended for people with a history of melanoma or other skin cancers. Melanoma treatment; localized melanoma Beyond the Basics ". Some clinicians also use lasers to treat psoriasis. The laser allows higher doses of ultraviolet B UVB radiation to be directed to the lesions while sparing normal skin; as a result, skin may heal with fewer treatments than with traditional ultraviolet light therapy.
Laser treatment is most suitable for people who Psoriasis Syndrome small Psoriasis Syndrome of psoriasis. It für Mittel wirksamste Kopf das Psoriasis usually taken once per week, and it may be taken in oral pill form or as an injection.
Methotrexate can be used for long-term treatment of psoriasis, although it is important to have your liver monitored during treatment; methotrexate can affect liver function in some people. Patients should avoid drinking alcohol while on methotrexate because alcohol also hurts the liver.
Improvement in psoriasis may not be seen until three months Psoriasis Syndrome methotrexate treatment are completed. While taking methotrexate, many providers recommend taking folic acid 1 mg daily or folinic acid 5 mg weekly to reduce the risk of certain methotrexate side effects, such as upset stomach and a sore mouth.
Severe side effects can occur Psoriasis Syndrome methotrexate — including damage to the lungs, liver Psoriasis Syndrome bone marrow, and even death — so careful monitoring is essential. Serious interactions may occur with certain medications, particularly Psoriasis Syndrome antibiotics.
Methotrexate is not safe to take Psoriasis Syndrome pregnancy. An oral form called acitretin brand name: Soriatane may be recommended to people with severe forms of psoriasis. Improvement may be noticeable within one month, although the full effect of retinoids may continue reading up to three to six months. Psoriasis Syndrome effects of retinoids include cracking and drying of the Psoriasis Syndrome and skin, nosebleeds, trouble seeing Psoriasis Talker the dark, hair loss, joint pain, and depression.
Acitretin may cause increased levels of triglycerides and liver enzymes in the blood; blood testing is usually recommended Psoriasis Syndrome monitor Psoriasis Syndrome these changes. Acitretin can cause severe birth defects and is only slowly removed from the body, so this medication is not used in women of child-bearing potential. Otezla is a newer oral medication for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis that works by reducing inflammation.
Apremilast is usually taken twice daily. People with severe kidney problems typically take apremilast only once daily. Improvement in psoriasis may begin within the first few weeks of apremilast treatment. The most common side effects click the following article apremilast are diarrhea, nausea, upper respiratory tract infection, and headache.
In addition, people taking apremilast should contact their healthcare providers if they notice the emergence or worsening of depression, suicidal thoughts, or other mood changes while taking this medication. These include cyclosporine, hydroxyurea, and azathioprine. Medications include etanercept Enbrelinfliximab sample brand name: Remicadeadalimumab brand name: Humiraustekinumab brand name: Stelarasecukinumab brand name: Cosentyxixekizumab brand name: Taltzand brodalumab Nieren-Psoriasis name: Biologics can be highly effective for the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, with improvement in skin symptoms that usually begins within a few weeks of starting treatment.
For patients with psoriatic arthritis, biologics can prevent joint destruction. Because of their cost and potential side effects, biologics are generally reserved for people with moderate to severe psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis that has not Psoriasis Syndrome to other treatments.
Etanercept, adalimumab, ustekinumab, secukinumab, ixekizumab, and brodalumab are injected by the patient, Psoriasis Syndrome family member, or nurse. Etanercept is usually given once or twice a week and adalimumab is usually Psoriasis Syndrome every other week.
After an initial period of more frequent treatment, ustekinumab is Psoriasis Syndrome every three months, secukinumab and ixekizumab are given once per month, and brodalumab is given once every two weeks. Infliximab must be given into a vein over two Psoriasis Syndrome three hours. After the first several weeks of Psoriasis Syndrome frequent treatment, infliximab can be given every eight weeks. Like methotrexate and cyclosporine, biologics affect the immune system and should not be used in people with serious infections.
Screening for tuberculosis TB is necessary before starting therapy since the risk of developing active TB infection is increased. If there is evidence of prior infection with tuberculosis, treatment to prevent reactivation of the infection is recommended see "Patient education: Tuberculosis Beyond the Basics ".
Testing for hepatitis B is also recommended. There Psoriasis Syndrome be an increased risk of lymphoma in people who take biologics and other drugs that affect the immune system; more Psoriasis Syndrome is needed to define this risk. See "Overview of biologic agents and kinase inhibitors in the rheumatic diseases".
Your healthcare provider is the best source of information for questions and concerns related to your medical problem. This article will be updated as needed on our website www. Related topics for patients, as well as selected articles written for healthcare Psoriasis Syndrome, are also available.
Some of the most relevant are listed below. These articles are best for patients who want a general overview and who prefer short, easy-to-read materials. Psoriasis The Basics Patient education: Psoriatic arthritis in adults The Basics Patient education: Psoriatic arthritis in children The Basics. These articles are best for patients who want in-depth information and are comfortable with some medical jargon. Psoriatic arthritis Beyond the Basics Patient education: Melanoma treatment; Psoriasis Syndrome melanoma Beyond Psoriasis Syndrome Basics Patient education: Tuberculosis Beyond the Basics.
These articles are thorough, long, and complex, and they contain multiple references to the Psoriasis Syndrome on which they are based. Professional level articles are best for people who are comfortable with a lot of medical terminology and who want to read the same materials their doctors are reading. Psoriasis Syndrome to the patient with a scalp disorder Approach to the patient with anal pruritus Approach to the patient with pustular skin lesions Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of psoriasis Management of psoriasis in pregnancy Pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis Treatment of psoriasis Treatment of psoriatic arthritis Overview of biologic agents and kinase inhibitors in the rheumatic diseases.
Deputy Editor Abena O Ofori, MD Abena O Ofori, MD Deputy Editor — Dermatology Assistant Professor of Medicine, Dermatology Division Medical College of Psoriasis Syndrome. PSORIASIS OVERVIEW Psoriasis is a chronic skin disorder that causes areas of thickened, inflamed, red skin, often covered with silvery scales. PSORIASIS CAUSES Researchers have not identified the exact cause of psoriasis. PSORIASIS SYMPTOMS Symptoms of psoriasis include: PSORIASIS DISEASE COURSE Psoriasis is usually a lifelong condition and is not currently curable, although the severity of the disease can improve or worsen over time and can Psoriasis Syndrome controlled with treatment.
PSORIASIS DIAGNOSIS Psoriasis can be diagnosed by examining the skin. PSORIASIS TREATMENT Psoriasis is not curable but many treatments are available that can reduce the bothersome symptoms and appearance of the disease.
WHERE TO GET MORE INFORMATION Your healthcare provider is the best source of information for questions and concerns related to your medical problem. Approach to the patient with a scalp disorder Approach to the patient with anal pruritus Approach to the patient with pustular skin lesions Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, go here diagnosis of psoriasis Management of psoriasis in pregnancy Pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis Treatment of psoriasis Treatment of psoriatic arthritis Overview of biologic agents and Psoriasis Syndrome inhibitors in the rheumatic diseases The following organizations also provide reliable health information.
Literature review current through: This Psoriasis Syndrome last updated: The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.
Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. Contents Psoriasis Syndrome this article.
PSORIASIS OVERVIEW PSORIASIS CAUSES PSORIASIS SYMPTOMS TYPES OF PSORIASIS PSORIASIS DISEASE COURSE PSORIASIS DIAGNOSIS PSORIASIS TREATMENT WHERE TO GET MORE INFORMATION REFERENCES. FIGURES Skin anatomy PI Pathology of psoriasis PI PICTURES Plaque psoriasis on knee PI Guttate psoriasis Psoriasis Syndrome trunk PI Pustular psoriasis pustules PI Inverse psoriasis PI Nail psoriasis pits PI Nail psoriasis oil spots PI.
Consult the medical resource doctors trust. Content written by a faculty of over 5, physicians from leading medical institutions Unbiased: Tuberculosis Beyond the Basics Approach Psoriasis Syndrome the patient with a scalp disorder Approach to the Psoriasis Syndrome with anal pruritus Approach to the patient with pustular skin lesions Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of psoriasis Management of psoriasis in pregnancy Overview of biologic agents and kinase inhibitors in the rheumatic diseases Pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis Patient education: Psoriatic arthritis in children The Basics Treatment of psoriasis Treatment of psoriatic arthritis.
Guttate psoriasis Inverse psoriasis Nail psoriasis Patient information Phototherapy Plaque psoriasis Plaques Psoralen plus UltraViolet-A photochemotherapy Psoriasis Pustular psoriasis.
Psoriasis Syndrome Psoriasis Symptoms, Treatment, Causes - What is psoriasis? - MedicineNet
Lately, it has been strongly associated with obesity, as well as other components of metabolic syndrome, such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and arterial hypertension.
We reviewed the literature of the last decade by using the keywords: Obesity and psoriasis seem to share similar profiles of systemic inflammation. The more severely an individual is affected with psoriasis, the more likely it is to be obese.
Psoriasis Syndrome makes the disease Psoriasis Syndrome important health care issue, which requires the cooperation of dermatologists with other medical specialists. This review Sophora Psoriasis japonica to summarize Psoriasis Syndrome links and risks that associate psoriasis with obesity, and highlight the concerns and queries for both disorders in the future.
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For permission for commercial use click here this work, please see paragraphs 4. Clinical Interventions in Aging Targets and Therapy5: Journal of Blood Medicine6: International Journal of Nanomedicine7: International Journal of Nanomedicine Psoriasis Syndrome, 6: Drug Design, Development and Therapy4: The opinions expressed in all articles published here are those of the specific author sand do not necessarily reflect the views of Dove Medical Press Ltd or Psoriasis Syndrome of its employees.
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Abstract Fulltext Metrics Get Permission. Authors Liakou AI, Zouboulis CC Psoriasis Syndrome 30 May Accepted for publication 6 August Published 2 November Volume S Checked for plagiarism Yes Review by Single-blind Peer reviewers approved by Dr Ivan Grozdev Peer reviewer comments 4 Editor who approved publication: Readers of this article also read:
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Psoriasis is a chronic skin disorder that causes areas of thickened, inflamed, red skin, often covered with silvery scales. Children and adolescents can develop.